Gopalganj district was notified as a separate district in 1973. In 1758, Fateh Bahadur Sahi, a member of Hathwa Raj, led the war of independence in the district. But he had to shift his activities to Tamkuhi as some of his associated ditched him.
It is one of the largest sugarcane producers in India. It also produces the best tobaccos in the country. It is the birthplace of the famous politician and former Chief Minister of Bihar/ Railway Minister of India Laloo Prasad Yadav, best known for his unique accent and cunningness. Its the birthplace of Abdul Ghafoor, the only muslim chief minister of Bihar till date. It is also the birthplace of one of the first lady governor of India (Ram Dulari Sinha) and the only illiterate Chief Minister of Bihar, Rabri Devi. The district has provided the state with 3 chief ministers. Gopalganj is also famous for producing large number of IAS and IPS officers. The district is adjacent to the famous Valmiki National Park.